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Food Prices in Nigeria – Understanding Rising Costs and Their Impact

Food prices in Nigeria have continued to rise in 2024, putting pressure on household budgets across the country. This article will provide an updated look at the latest prices of common food items and factors driving costs higher.

Whether you shop at markets, supermarkets, or street food vendors, staying aware of the latest food prices helps Nigerian families plan their budgets. We’ll explore prices for staples like grains, meat, dairy, vegetables, and fruit that make up everyday Nigerian cuisine.

Key Takeaways

  • Staple grain prices like rice, maize, millet, and wheat have risen 10-30%, putting pressure on household budgets.
  • Protein sources like meat, fish, eggs, and milk are becoming less affordable for the average Nigerian family.
  • Produce items have seen more mixed price changes, but remain elevated compared to pre-inflation levels.
  • Fuel costs, currency devaluation, climate impacts, and insecurity are driving food inflation.
  • Families are coping by cutting back on proteins, buying in bulk when prices fall, farming small plots, and eliminating food waste.
  • Additional government programs and long-term agricultural investments are needed to stabilize food prices.
  • Tracking the latest prices for everyday ingredients helps Nigerians manage rising costs and persist with preparing traditional cuisine.
  • Affordability of rice, wheat, maize, meat, fish, eggs, milk, fruits and vegetables directly impacts family nutrition and welfare.
  • While prices are forecast to keep rising in 2024, Nigerians continue finding ways to feed their families and retain cultural food traditions.

Grain Prices

Grains are a diet staple in Nigeria, used to make foods like tuwo shinkafa, eba, amala, rice dishes, porridges, and more. Higher grain costs directly impact family meals.


  • Local rice varieties average 180-220 Naira per kg retail, a 10-20% increase from 2023.
  • Imported rice ranges 240-260 Naira per kg, up 30% or more in some brands.
  • Millions rely on rice as a cheap source of calories. Rising prices put strain on poorer families.


  • Maize prices have surged to 240-280 Naira per kg, driven by high demand and tight supply.
  • Drought conditions in northern Nigeria have disrupted maize harvests.
  • Price hikes directly affect the cost of staple foods like maize tuwo meals.


  • Retails for 220-260 Naira per kg, a 20-30% increase from 2023.
  • Millet is a key component of foods like tuwo and kunu drinks.
  • High costs make it difficult for low income Nigerians to afford this nutritious cereal.


  • Sells for 190-230 Naira per kg, up 10-20% from last year.
  • Also used to make tuwo, ogi porridges, and brewed into burukutu beer.
  • Northern Nigeria depends on affordable sorghum as a food security crop.


  • Wheat ranges 240-280 Naira per kg, a 30% rise from 2023.
  • Nigeria relies heavily on imported wheat for flour, bread, and baked goods.
  • Forex shortage has raised the costs of imported wheat.


  • Wheat flour costs 300-350 Naira per kg, up 25% from last year.
  • Higher wheat prices feed into surging costs for flour.
  • Alternatives like cassava flour average 280-320 Naira per kg.

Other Key Food Items

  • Garri (50kg bag) – ₦22,000 to ₦26,000
  • Potatoes (25kg bag) – ₦4,000 to ₦6,000
  • Spaghetti (500g pack) – ₦10,500

Rising grain costs directly impact the price of preparing staple meals. Food inflation hits lower income families hardest.

Protein Food Prices

The costs of key protein foods like meat, fish, eggs, and beans have all seen major increases.


  • Beef sells for 1,200-1,400 Naira per kg, up 15% from 2023.
  • Herder-farmer conflicts continue to disrupt Nigeria’s beef supply.
  • Beef is considered a luxury protein for many families due to high costs.


  • Farm gate chicken prices are around 2,500 Naira each.
  • Retail chicken ranges 3,000-3,500 Naira per kg.
  • Avian flu disrupted supplies, but remains a more affordable protein option.


  • Frozen fish like mackerel sells for 400-450 Naira per kg.
  • Fresh tilapia ranges 1,000-1,200 Naira per kg.
  • Fish prices have risen 20-30% in cities further from coasts.


  • A crate of 30 eggs sells for 1,500-1,600 Naira, up from 1,200 last year.
  • Feed costs and bird flu impacted layer farms.
  • With high protein needs, egg price hikes hurt families.


  • Beans cost 420-460 Naira per kg, a 30% increase from 2023.
  • Major bean producing states faced crop losses.
  • Dried beans are a critical source of plant-based protein.


  • Powdered milk sells around 2,600 Naira per kg.
  • Local fresh milk is 600-800 Naira per liter.
  • Milk offers needed nutrition, but is becoming unaffordable.

Other Key Food Items

  • Groundnut Oil (5-liter bottle) – ₦5,500 to ₦6,500
  • Palm Oil (5-liter bottle) – ₦5,500 to ₦6,500

Meat, fish, eggs, and dairy are becoming less accessible for average Nigerian families dealing with high inflation.

Fruits and Vegetable Prices

Produce prices have been mixed, but remain elevated overall.


  • Cost 180-250 Naira per kg, down from 2023 due to better harvests.
  • Remain a core ingredient in Nigerian cuisine.


  • Sell for 220-280 Naira per kg.
  • Ongoing import restrictions have kept onion prices high.


  • Average 200-250 Naira per kg.
  • Are indispensable for flavoring Nigerian foods.


  • Sell for 200-250 Naira per kg.
  • Drought affected carrot crops.


  • Costs 180-220 Naira per kg.
  • Cabbage offers an affordable vegetable option.


  • Sell for 150-180 Naira each, up 25% from last year.
  • Families dissatisfied by reduced orange sizes.


  • Mature plantains cost 250-300 per finger.
  • Younger, sweeter plantains average 150-180 Naira each.
  • Plantains remain a staple fruit across Nigeria.


  • Average 150-200 Naira each, beyond the reach of many.
  • Nigeria imports the majority of its apples.

While locally grown produce like tomatoes and onions saw some declines, most fruits and vegetables still cost considerably more than 2020 pre-inflation levels.

Factors Driving Nigeria’s Food Price Inflation

Several key factors help explain why food prices continue rising faster than broader inflation:

  • Fuel costs – High petrol prices drive up food production, transport, and retailer electricity expenses.
  • Currency devaluation – Weakness in the Naira makes imports like wheat and rice more expensive.
  • Insecurity – Conflict disrupts Nigerian farming and inter-state trade.
  • Bad weather – Drought, flooding, and pests harm harvests of maize, rice, beans, and more.
  • Global conditions – External factors like the Russia-Ukraine war influence Nigeria’s imported food prices.
  • Population growth – Nigeria’s rapidly expanding population increases food demand.

With multiple issues impacting domestic food production and imports, Nigerian families continue dealing with high food costs.

Coping with Rising Prices

Nigerians are adopting a range of strategies to manage steeper food bills:

  • Switching from expensive proteins to beans, eggs, and fish
  • Buying more seasonal fruits and vegetables
  • Purchasing rice and other staples in bulk when prices dip
  • Cutting back on overall food waste
  • Farming small urban plots to supplement staple needs
  • Shifting meals out of restaurants back home
  • Growing participation in government social investment programs

Citizens hope policymakers will prioritize long-term agricultural development, investment in domestic food processing, and market reforms to stabilize prices.

The Road Ahead

Food price inflation remains a major challenge for Nigerian households in 2024. With prices forecast to keep rising, families will continue adjusting their shopping habits, meal plans, and broader lifestyles to cope. Many expect food prices to remain a key political and economic issue through the 2023 elections and beyond.

Tracking the latest prices for grains, protein, produce, and other everyday foods helps Nigerians stay resilient in the face of economic pressures. While cutting back, switching ingredients, and bargaining for deals, people retain their traditions of creating flavorful, nutritious dishes despite market conditions. The community culture around food persists, even if quantities are smaller and ingredients more humble.

Izu Mgbaemena

I'm Izu Mgbaemena, a Nigerian-based writer for Naijadazz. I love sharing stories about Nigerian culture, food, music and more. As a frequent contributor to Naijadazz, I relish the opportunity to showcase the endlessly fascinating aspects of Nigerian culture to a global audience.