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Poultry diseases, causes, treatments

As a farmer in Nigeria, you need to have first-hand information of seasonal impact on poultry and harsh-weather-resistant breeds and feed formulation.

Seasons in Nigeria have led to varying degrees of poultry production. Poultry production flourished at a moderate temperature. In extremely hot or cold weather conditions, meat and egg production is significantly affected.

The extreme rainy season would propagate the spread of microorganism in the chicken poultry farm.  It occurs because of the surge in relative humidity. Poultry with poor management and hygienic conditions would most likely infect their entire chickens. Below are the common poultry diseases and treatments in Nigeria.

Fowl Pox

The symptoms of this disease include; white spots, white ulcers, scabby sores and inconsistent laying of eggs. This disease can be contacted by mosquitoes and other contaminated chickens. Also, it can be contracted by air since it is a viral disease. To effectively treat this disease, ensure that you feed your chickens with soft food and offer them a dry and warm place to try and recoup.


The symptom associated with this disease is the growth of tremors in your chicken. Note that the tremors will develop into total body paralysis which might affect their breathing. It is a deadly disease. Another symptom that you will notice is the pull out of their feathers which usually precede their final death.

In case you observe that your chickens have contracted this disease, it implies that there has been some kind of dead meat near their water and food which contaminated it. How do you treat and control this disease? I strongly recommend an antitoxin that can be gotten from your local vet.

Endeavour to mix 1 teaspoon of the antitoxin (Epsom salts) with one ounce of warm water. Ensure that you give it to them by dropper once per day. In the long run, this disease is avoidable as long as you ensure that your chickens are kept in a clean environment devoid of any dead carcass.

Fowl Cholera

Anytime you notice that your birds have started to have yellowish or greenish diarrhoea, are having difficulty in breathing or obvious joint pain, and have a darkened wattle or head, these are obvious signs of fowl cholera. Fowl Cholera can be contracted from water, food and wild animals that already have this bacterial disease.

But the downside is that there is no real treatment to effectively curb this disease. So, it is advisable to destroy their carcass and eliminate them.

Newcastle disease

This disease is prevalent in the respiratory system. You will begin to notice discharge through the nose, breathing problems, murky eyes, and a reduction in the number of eggs they lay. Also, it is common that the bird’s wings and legs will become paralyzed coupled with the twisting of their necks.

The disease is contracted through other birds including wild birds. Note that if you make contact with an infected bird, you can pass it on from your shoes, clothes, and other items. However, the exciting news is that the older birds have a greater chance of recovering from this disease but most baby birds are weak to recover and will eventually die. You can meet with your local veterinary doctor to recommend a vaccine.

Air Sac disease

This disease will make your chicken develop weakness and poor laying skills. As it progresses, you will notice breathing problems, coughing, swollen joints, sneezing, and possibly death. This disease can be contracted from other birds (including wild birds).

Also, it can be transferred from a hen to her chick through the laying of eggs. To treat this illness, ensure that you consult your veterinary doctor who will recommend an antibiotic.

Oni Olatunji

This article was written by Oni Olatunji.